Overview

The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) is a brief child-friendly measure designed to screen children at risk for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), developed by the Children and War Foundation. It has good face and construct validity, a stable factor structure, correlates well with other indices of distress, and has been used to screen very large samples of at-risk-children following a wide range of traumatic events. It has been applied in a variety of cultures as post-traumatic stress symptoms in children are more similar than they are different from one culture to the other

There are 2 versions:

  • CRIES-8: Designed for use with children aged 8 years and above who are able to read independently. It consists of 4 items measuring Intrusion and 4 items measuring Avoidance - hence it is called the CRIES-8.
  • CRIES-13: As above with 5 items added to evaluate Arousal.

The CRIES-8 performs equally as well and is recommended for use over CRIES-13 as a screening tool.

Populations

For child completion by children and young people age 8-18.

Translation

CRIES-8 available in Arabic, Syrian Arabic, Bahasa Malaysian, Bahasa Indonesian version, Bengali/Bangla, Bosnian, Chinese, Danish, Dari/Farsi, Dutch, Farsi, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Kurdish, Nepali, Norwegian, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Thai, Urdu and Ukrainian.

Translations for CRIES-8, including the English version, can be found here.

CRIES-13 available in Arabic, Bahasa Malaysian, Bahasa Indonesian version, Bengali/Bangla, Bosnian, Chinese, Danish, Dari/Farsi, Dutch, Finnish, Flemish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, Myanmar, Norwegian, Pashto, Polish, Spanish, Swedish, Tamil and Thai.

Translations for CRIES-13, including the English version, can be found here.

Administration

CRIES is a self reported questionnaire.

Scoring

There are 8 items that are scored on a four point scale:

Not at all = 0
Rarely = 1
Sometimes = 3
Often = 5

There are two subscales:

Intrusion = sum of items 1+3+6+7
Avoidance = sum of items 2+4+5+8

The lay-out has been designed so that scoring can be easily done in the two columns on the right hand side.  The total for each sub-scale can be entered at the bottom of each column. Wherever possible, we have done this in all the languages into which the scale has been translated.

Terms of use

Free to use, though the Children and War Foundation request copies of the results for continued improvements to the measure.

Further information

Information on the evaluation and psychometric properties.

Please go to the Children and War Foundation website.

References

Dyregrov, A., Kuterovac, G. & Barath, A.(1996) Factor analysis of the Impact of Event Scale with children in war. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 36, 339-350.

Horowitz, M. J., Wilner, N., and Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of  event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosom.Med.,   41, 209‑218

Kuterovac, G., Dyregrov, A.& Stuvland, R. (1994) Children in war: A silent majority under stress. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 67, 363-375.

Perrin, S., Meiser-Stedman, R. & Smith, P. (2005) The Children’s Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES): Validity as a screening instrument for PTSD. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33 (4), 487-498.

Smith, P., Perrin, S., Dyregrov, A. & Yule, W.  (2002) Principal components analysis of the Impact of Event Scale with children in war. Personality and Individual Differences,

Yule, W. (1992) Post Traumatic stress disorder in child survivors of shipping disasters: The sinking of the "Jupiter". J. Psychother. Psychosomatics, 57, 200-205.

Yule, W. (1997) Anxiety, Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress in Childhood.  In I. Sclare (Ed) Child Psychology Portfolio. Windsor: NFER-Nelson

Yule, W., Ten Bruggencate, S & Joseph, S. (1994)  Principal components analysis of the Impact of Events Scale in children who survived a shipping disaster.  Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 685-691.

Please note that the information on this page was last updated in April 2017.